Typically, men contract to work in the major cities while leaving their families and political rights behind them in the ‘homelands’. Migrant labour has ensured a supply of cheap wage labour to the mining sector and secondary industry, and is a system which has been condemned throughout the world.
What is migrant labour in South Africa?
The notion of migrant labour is based from a legal framework system that did not recognize ‘homelands’ or ‘reserves’ as part of the Union of South Africa, hence employment seekers travelling outside of the homelands and those who had already secured employment within the Union of South Africa were considered migrant …
Why was the migrant labour system created?
Origins. The labor demands of a rapidly growing mining industry and the imposition of colonial control were enormously important forces in shaping the long-term trajectory of migrant labor in South Africa. But a still-deeper history of the wider region also played a significant part in the genesis of the system.
Why was there a need for migrant workers?
Many countries rely on migrant workers to help them plug their labour shortfalls, while migrants’ remittances provide a vital source of finance and foreign exchange for households and governments in their countries of origin. But the life of a migrant worker is often a harsh and isolated one.
How did the migrant labour system affect the family lives in South Africa?
The migrant labour system resulted in fatherless homes as fathers were in the city working in low-paying jobs and only returning home once a year. … Today’s economic climate demands both men and women work to supplement the incomes, so many black women leave their hometowns in search of better prospects in the city.
When did migrant Labour start in South Africa?
The ‘pass laws’ and migrant labour of apartheid in South Africa today have their origins in the policies designed to control the black workers in the diamond mines a century ago.
What is the conclusion of migration?
Migration is defined as the regular movement of animals each year between separate breeding and wintering grounds. There are many different types of migratory behaviour, ranging from completely sedentary populations to populations that are completely migratory (obligate migrants).
Where do most migrant workers come from?
An estimated 14 million foreign workers live in the United States, which draws most of its immigrants from Mexico, including 4 or 5 million undocumented workers. It is estimated that around 5 million foreign workers live in Northwestern Europe, half a million in Japan, and around 5 million in Saudi Arabia.
What is meant by labour migration?
migrant labour, casual and unskilled workers who move about systematically from one region to another offering their services on a temporary, usually seasonal, basis.
What are the effects of labor migration?
The major positive effect of labour migration in the sending countries is that it provides temporary relief on domestic labour markets and helps reduce unemployment, particularly in economically-deprived areas.
What is the problem with migrant workers?
In general, migrant garment workers in all work settings lack social security and health case arrangements or they are dependent on their employers for health care. Bad housing and sharing work and living space often leads to health problems, due to overcrowding, lack of ventilation and lack of recreation.
What are the working and living conditions of migrant farmers?
Farmworkers are often isolated, living in rural areas with no transportation. They experience discrimination and harassment. They must often work long hours, with little diversion or entertainment. As a result, farmworkers have high rates of anxiety, depression, and other mental health problems .
How does migration affect the family who moved?
In the short term, migration may have a disruptive effect on the family because of reduced inputs to market and household production. As migration is costly and does not necessarily lead to immediate employment at destination, it may even translate into reduced income for the family that has to finance the migrant.
Who controlled South Africa in the 1800s?
Increased European encroachment ultimately led to the colonisation and occupation of South Africa by the Dutch. The Cape Colony remained under Dutch rule until 1795 before it fell to the British Crown, before reverting back to Dutch Rule in 1803 and again to British occupation in 1806.
How do mine owners benefit from migrant Labour system?
Over and above the compound’s controlling function, migrant labour also had two additional advantages for the mine owners (Murray 1981:26): Justifying the low wages paid by the mine owners who argued that wages were only a part of the total package offered to workers who essentially were farmers in need of additional …